Monopolar coagulation: an active electrode of various shapes (ball, lancet, loop, spatula, needle, etc.) causes local coagulation of tissues at the point of contact due to the passage of high-frequency pulses between the active and neutral electrode.
Incision is a monopolar coagulation mode in which the active electrode is in the form of a lancet, loop or needle. The result of exposure is the formation of a clean wound without coagulation, suitable for biopsy or a wound with a thin layer of superficial coagulation.
A tissue incision in a liquid medium is possible (during transurethral resection of the bladder).
Spray is a gentle method of monopolar coagulation, in which there is no contact of the active electrode with the tissue surface. The result of exposure is the formation of a superficial coagulation zone (used for superficial capillary bleeding).
Bipolar coagulation: the working elements of coagulation instruments – forceps, scissors, tweezers have two points of contact with the tissue surface.
The high-frequency current applied to the instrument passes between the points of contact, and causes limited coagulation of the tissue area located between these points. It is possible to use cutting mode with coagulation.